Friday, December 10, 2010


"We do not reject the machine. We welcome it, but we desire to see it mastered."
-Ashbee, 1888

The first section of the unit of explorations is the notion of explorations itself, and by entering the explorations unit, we find ourselves at the medieval revival. This was the spinoff of the arts and crafts movement, also known as the aesthetic movement. The Paris Opera House in Garnier, built in 1875, is a prime example of this due to its grand level of opulence, navigation, and emotion. It was designed around the idea of vision by an individual and other people. The idea was to watch a show while being recognized by others in a sociable manner. The next section of the unit we come to is the inspirations from art, which puts fowarth the effort of good design for all.

Sunday, November 28, 2010


Weatherspoon Art Museum
Greensboro Collects Exhibit

Landscape: Real, Surreal, and Constructed

The piece I chose...

by Ansel Adams



Wednesday, November 17, 2010

IAR 222: Point Essay Response


"Nothing is ever impossible and there are no such things as rules."

For the Alternatives unit I reviewed three of my classmates, Michelle Baulieu, Austin Loman, and Caitlyn Lyle, on their own idea of what the section meant to them. To start off, I read Michelle's essay. I believe she did a great job in conveying her point as to the different meanings of the "church" and how it was changed and enhanced over time as we progressed throughout the Alternatives unit. After a brief explanation of the Gothic period, she goes in depth into the Renaissance, and explains what it primarily means to her as a designer. She goes on to explain how she believes we are still in the Renaissance today as designers are still experimenting with boundaries and rules. Next I as I reviewed Austin's essay I discovered a very well-written and in-depth essay, flowing nicely from one period to the next as we made our way through the Alternatives unit. He makes nice transitions in his writing as he breaks down the unit into three important periods: the spirit of the Renaissance, the ecstasy of the Gothic, and the beauty of the Early Baroque. On thing he refers to in his essay is, "In the baroque style unity is achieved through subordination of individual elements in order to invigorate the whole." I believe this is a great way of characterizing the Baroque period. The last persons blog I reviewed for the Alternatives unit was Caitlyn's. Reading her essay was very easy, and she made the learning experience enjoyable through her bullet points and images. By breaking down the Renaissance period into ten parts, Caitlyn summed up the “ultimate prescription for most spaces and places of the Renaissance.” On into Baroque, she describes how from moving into this period things start to come to life as objects are given the ability to “move” in the way they are portrayed in the art and design world.

The picture displayed below was found on both Michelle and Caitlyn's blogs.


For the Relfections unit, I observed these three classmates blogs: Anna Behrendt, Jenni Hamm, and Kacie Leisure. First I reviewed Anna's essay. While reading it I appreciated that it was written on a lighter note, and made a reference to the Lion King. This not only helped put things into a design perspective for me, but truly explained well the point she was trying to convey of “The circle of life.” As she named off the individual buildings of the era which she believed had the most impact on them, she also made a direct tie within them through the materials which were used for each. Next, I took a look at Jenni's essay. Alike to Anna, Jenni also put much emphasis on the materials of the time period in her essay, which I found very appropriate. She talks alot about the exports from and between countries, and how they were used in different ways for different reasons, types of people, and spaces. Jenni also goes into the other styles of the time, as she talks about the industrial revolutions, and coming to a point of, "Architecture seemed to free itself temporarily from the constraints of the classical world and branch out to revive other styles such as the Gothic." Overall she did a great job of conveying her ideas clearly. The last persons blog I reviewed was Kacie's. As we talked about the idea of design revolution in class, Kacie applied this to her own concept as she explained how in it's own way, being an Interior Architecture student has its own revolution. She talks about how it changes us, as we essentially change ourselves in the way we design, and progress in the world of design. How we are constantly looking for that deeper meaning in the things that we do. I think she did a great job of this, making it easy for all of those who read this, to relate to.

I found this image appropriate to the idea of a Revolution, whether it be a single one, or many.

Tuesday, November 16, 2010



“Art Nouveau succeeds as a creative and imaginative style that creates total works of art.”
(Harwood, 484)

Postal Savings Bank
Otto Wagner
Vienna, Austria

Many times have we seen glass ceilings when dealing with the industrial revolutions from all over the world, but this is the first time we see the ceiling along with its opposing plane, the floor, being made of glass. This allows not only for one floor of the building to be illuminated by the natural light, but also the one underneath it, as the glass allows for the light to bleed through to a second space of the building. This concept is very conventional and well designed. We also find that the heating ventilation system is not hidden, but yet celebrated in this building.

Helsinki Central Railway Station
Carl Edelfelt
Helsinki, Finland

With over 200,000 passengers occupying the train station each day, the Helsinki Central Railway Station is not only designed efficiently to meet the needs of those who use it most, but is designed stylistically in how it ultimately meets the standards of a beautiful Art Nouveau masterpiece. The Glass ceiling allows light to flood the loading space, as curvilinear forms give character to the building which allows us to see its Ats Nouveau personality.


Scott Specht

Although it is only a proposed idea in 3-D model form, it is a very intent approach to the idea of “machines for living.” With it's interchangeable parts, and modernistic approach to architecture, the building truly embodies Le Corbusier's idea of a machine. Although the word “modern” has a different meaning for the 1920's as it does for now, the fact that this building truly embodies the highest technologies for today's time period, we are allowed to use this word when describing it. In terms today, modern has meanings such as sustainability, green-efficient, holistic, and safe, and when studying this building deeper, we see that the zeroHouse embodies all of these things.



Sunday, November 7, 2010

IAR 222- Point Essay

"The right question to ask respecting all ornament
simply this: Was it done with enjoyment?"
Ruskin, 1851


As we make our way into the Reflections unit, we start off in the Baroque period, and is exactly where we ask ourselves the question, “what does it mean to be a holistic environment?” A holistic environment is one in which all parts come together as a whole. There is no separation found within the design language of each room which in turn truly creates an atmosphere for the individuals who come within the space, not only by their physical placement but by also tweaking their emotions. Holism best described is a complete system of work, such as a circle, ever evolving and complimenting all parts of the whole. Summing up the Baroque period we find a strong continuity in overindulgence across all sorts of design frames in the Baroque Period. A prime example of this would be the Hall of Mirrors within Versailles.

Moving on into the section on Revolution we find that rules are no longer holding their value as they are being bent and exceptions are being found. Moving beyond the rules of the Renaissance, strong geometry occurs, and the Baroque period turns these rules fluid. Glass and Iron are introduced as main materials in the structures being built. The enterprise of design becomes complicated as many voices are now heard, and many styles are introduced. Studying into the structures built during this time period we see that there is no dominant style. The Greenwich Observatory, which is a prominent building of this era, became the prototype for the measurement of time.

As we start to find our way into the American Revolution section we direct our focus toward the “real deal and the ideal.” First, we diagram what Revolution actually means...

During the American Revolution the trace of major trade patterns between England and the American colonies becomes evident. We find the world starting to share not only their products, but also their ideas. Periods of static activity and periods of great change appear to us. Many characteristics are found which include reflection, theatricality, and lighting, but we also see distinct differences between pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary products. Buildings start to be designed around an idea, for example, a library would be designed around the way we learn with hierarchical patterns to portray this picture. Within hierarchy, we adapt new languages not only from Rome, but also from Greece. The image shown below is the Schuykill Water Works in Philadelphia, PA.

We conclude with our final section of notes on a widening debate: hand-craft or machine? During the late 1800's we find many Eastern influences on the Western world, as many characteristics are carried over and applied in various ways. We see this happen through color, texture, art, decoration, and ornamentation. The influences are brought upon and allow us to see what “true interior architecture” looks and feels like. It allows our minds to grasp what becomes important to the spaces and the people occupying them, and allows for a more realistic approach to design.


Wednesday, November 3, 2010



“The more, the merrier.”

PAGE 117

From the mid- 1800's up to the start of the new century, we find a new stylistic period which we called the Victorian Era. During this time, we find that the interiors which people occupied, were very dark and enclosed as they were trying to “protect” themselves from the outside world. The only word that can do these interiors justice is clutter, and we see that every inch of these interiors has a sort of decoration and ornamentation. The occupants essentially filled their environments with material things which described their personalities and on an even deeper note, their values and morals.





One of the biggest influences to the Western world from the East would be pattern. The Eastern world embraced pattern as it was an important factor of their lives. The time put into creating these pieces of art produced beautiful and intricately designed fabrics used for clothing, decoration, and ornamentation. We can see similarities between the floral pattern in the cloth and the floral art on the vase. The vase is from the Victorian period, and carries many of the same qualities as the pattern as the flowers bring life to the things in which they inhabit, saying in a broader sense something about the owners of these things. It creates movement, which later becomes important to the Western world.




The art of the Eastern world will always stand out as it's style is easily recognizable. Its intricate, yet simple detail makes it an innovative approach when mixed in with the design world. Many designers are easily found who appreciate and readily become inspired by this art to create and design spaces which exemplify the Eastern world. The Peacock Room, designed by Thomas Jeckyll, is a prime example to us of what “Interior Architecture” really is. As we discover that there is not one tangible item within the room that has not been thought about and integrated into the design, the dining room which lies in the Western world, embodies many styles of the East. The built-in shelving, wall filigree and art, vases, and even the molding and ceiling ornamentation show characteristics of the Eastern world.




So close and relative in design language are the Taj Mahal and the Royal Pavilion, but so far away are their geographic locations, as the first lies in India, and the second lies in Great Britain. We find it popular in the East that the exteriors hint upon their interiors, giving onlookers a more curious approach as to whatever may lie within the inside. The domes which are seen in both buildings add interest and give them their personality, as do the architectural points which stand tall. Both buildings are close in context with water which enhances their themes, interior and exterior, of the “exotic.”




Last, but not least we come to the fourth and final form of place. This form I feel closely relates to the previous, as the exotic theme is still carried through the interiors I have chosen. The top image being an interior in India, and the lower image being an interior in England, both of these capture an individual through color. The colors from this part of the Eastern world are bright and vibrant, and enhance excitement within a person. This seems a very appropriate aspect to carry through to market buildings in the Western world, such as the Great Exhibition as buyers and sellers from all over the world would gather here to exchange commerce. Joseph Paxton, the designer of this building not only created a beautiful place, but also mood to enhance the profit margins of the merchants and the contentment of the purchasers.

(in order of appearance)

Monday, October 25, 2010


This portion of our History and Theory of Design class finished up the Gothic period of architecture and design and throws us into the Renaissance period strongly as we analyze the specifics of it, then on to introduce the Baroque period.

While in Rome, we study the Gothic ideas and revelations which lie within it. As we discover catacombs as the place to practice safe worship, we also find similarities between them and the church with invitational purposes and their greater meanings, looking into depth at the altar. The idea of procession is found, whether it is concentrated on the beginning of life to death, or another analogy. An important strategy of the Gothic movement is that within a single building the entire universe must be expressed. These strategies become an important factor to consider while we see that the Gothic world puts much concentration on verticality, de-materialization, and the story telling potential through glass, and from this we find prototypes all around the world as the cultural and social world unite. Religious aspects are emphasized upon as not only these massive cathedrals fly up everywhere we look, but the rise of the monetary, the convent, and pilgrimage church is very strong. To conclude the Gothic portion of this unit we find strong notions and concepts.
- The main concept is “Ecstasy and Exultation,” which essentially relates to the shaping of space around the light, colors, and amplifiers themselves.
- “Shaping illumination to resemble the divine.”
- All oriented around the same religion, the Gothic cathedrals are primarily in a network, and through adaptations to local positions, we find differences, which essentially push us towards the Renaissance.

Moving onward into the renaissance period we see that the notion of protection is no longer as important, and as it falls away, comfort arises. The Renaissance inhabits no one style, but many, as we discover that there are no rules, boundaries, limits, or laws as to what is acceptable and what is not. It is a revival of the trial and error idea as people find their own identities, and finally start to do things the way they personally like as they break the architectural rules. There is an intent to create new tradition for all as we move into an era where man is the measure of all things. This is when our principles of design, still used today, are not just created for the most part, but installed into our world. Ideas of rhythm, repetition of elements, contrast between two things, and emphasis on borders are applied to building design, and compose some of our other elements such as harmony, unity, balance, and proportion. A name is made for not only each community, but individual, as drastic propositions are taken and create much drama and theatricality. As this theatricality is grasped and enhanced, the Baroque period is born. Life within this period is lived out in theater as is becomes the human environment and is applied to all aspects of design and architectural influence.


Villa Savoye

Sunday, October 17, 2010



“Architecture has become but one constituent part in what was “a total work of art.”
(Roth, 404)

Emphasis. Emphasis is the word I have chosen for the following artifacts. This comes from the idea of parts. Whether it is the object as a whole of parts which has the emphasis placed upon it's individuals, or the single parts of a whole creating the complete in which the emphasis is placed upon. Emphasis defined in it's simplest terms is the importance placed on a certain subject. Broken down it can single out many attributes, among the piece observed. Each piece of furniture, although used very differently, have similar characteristics. Some of these could be a quality such as the extravagant ornamentation, or the thin and fragile quality, but what I believe as the definite of them all is the notion of flexible movement contained within a sturdy object. Design is easily linked to science as we confer the analogy; electron movements: inanimate objects as to chaotic filigree: stationary artifact.

Line. Line is the word I have chosen for the following spaces. The common definition of line is a single mark of progression. When a line is drawn, some would see only the mark it creates, but some would focus on the two parts, or absence thereof, it leaves us with. In each space, although from divergent time spans, we discover very elaborate thought in detail and intricacy within three parts of each space. After analyzing the spaces given, considering the idea of separation would be optimal. Excluding the artifacts in between, these three parts are the flooring, the walls, and the ceilings. Each part speaks its identity to us in different ways. These ways could be through pattern, order, style, etc. The overall strategic effort is to focus on what separates the parts. The crown molding often becomes lost within a space, due to its efforts to imply focus on the in between. If thought of this way it closely relates to a line, which has the ability to not only create one, but essentially two or more spaces.

Repetition. Repetition is the word I have chosen for the following buildings. Similar to the first two responses, this last one also inhabits the focus of parts. Repetition defined is the repeat of two or more parts. Although these buildings obtain the utmost forms of symmetry, order, and balance, the main focus is directed toward another principle. In each building, despite the vast distances between, we discover the importance of repetition to the design as a prominent principle. Each building takes one unit of the whole, copying it many times, while using either similar or identical measurements between each individual unit, and essentially causing repetition. When observing the facades, whether accepting a column or window as the unit, we find this principle of repetition in each building.


My Floor plan is a spin off from the idea behind the Villa Rotunda, which is essentially one of the greatest works of Palladio. "Center" becomes the focus of the plan as is is halved and shapes are added to exemplify repetition, balance, and symmetry. It focuses on the square, or in this case diamond, and the triangles the shape can create within it.


The idea of theatrical performance is one which closely relates to the Baroque style period. Theater is putting on a show for an audience through elaboration, over exaggeration, and role-playing. Each of these important factors described are all characteristics of the Baroque period. The style period was all about extravagance and over indulgence to place ideas in the minds of society.

LA COUPE (the cut) : IAR 201

Section Elevation

...initial idea for Urban Studio cancer wellness center.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

POINT ESSAY. foundations unit. IAR 222

As we travel through Mesopotamia, America, China, and Egypt we find the first signs of architecture the world has to offer us. Humanities first efforts tend to be much the same, no matter where we look upon earths surface. We find that circles, lines, and stacks are all introduced in different forms and ways. All civilizations are putting forth an effort to convey their story, not only within their culture but to all present and future cultures of the world. We find a notion of longevity and stories within the society over many generations. In order to tell these stories visually, mass efforts were put forth through architecture by means of scale. Massive installments were made upon earths surface, with an established vertical axis which was inscribed between humanity and the heavens.
Making our way to Greece, we are able to add an element to our list. Not only do we find balance, although asymmetrical upon the acropolis, we now compile circles, lines, stacks, and form. In Greece, everything seems to lead to, or be a sign to something else. No lines are parallel to one another, and we discover that artfully crafting a building is much more complicated than it may seem. We also find that the center is very important. It is real and ideal. Egypt becomes the prototype for Greece's architecture, as we discover the scheme of porch, court, and hearth. Lines of symmetry are formed through buildings designed for places of worship. The temple form is suggested after a system of trial and error. The Agora is the place of gathering for conversation and gossip, as it is an everyday alternative to the acropolis. The “tympanum” is introduced on the pediment and is usually decorated with some sort of hand crafted sculpture, and so is the idea of patterned mosaics and tile work. All of these things relay to us a story of some sort, whether we interpret it correctly or incorrectly.
Lastly we travel to the Roman Empire which was known as the Melting pot for revival. Rome is beautiful and refreshing to us as we find extravagant pleasure of a modern city, a looking forward civilization, horizontal expression over vertical, assimilation and adaption of the locality, and a powerful empire. The interiors are filled with a wide spread use of columns and vaulting as we discover a technological breakthrough with masonry. There are surfaces, not systems, paired with decorative, ostentatious furnishings. As we weave through diverse building types, our world becomes enlightened with architecture and designs order of space.

Although it is not a defined subject that we cover in class, we do use the ideas daily in conversations and otherwise, so I have decided to incorporate it in my essay. During the course of the semester we took a mini pop quiz which required us to write down all of the principles and elements of design that we possibly could. It was quite embarrassing to find out that I could only identify one or two of them, out of the overall ten. Since the quiz I have been working on my memorization of them and trying to relate them to everyday life, and figure out what exactly they mean. I realize that my entire life, I will be working towards figuring these things out, by adding and taking away from this list, but so far, from our compiled list, this is what I have come up with...

Line: a single mark of progression.
Space: the parts between two or more planes.
Form: the shape or flow of a plane.

Repetition: the repeat of two or more parts.
Contrast: two or more opposing factors.
Emphasis: the importance placed on a certain subject.
Harmony: the perfect balance of a collection.
Balance: equality in weight between parts.
Proportion: relationship of the parts.
Unity: prominent factor; idea of a whole.


Thursday, September 30, 2010




compared to inside/outside of Cologne
compared to time of Amiens
compared to patron of Florence



The Amiens and the Salisbury Cathedrals are both very prominent and vital pieces of architecture to the Gothic style period. Although they look similar, and essentially give the same vibes as one another, they were each built in very different ways. The Salisbury Cathedral was one project which was completed in a time span of 38 years, whereas the Amiens Cathedral was a project taken on and left by many different builders and designers, taking over 200 years to complete. By looking at the floor plans, it would seem as if the Salisbury Cathedral was the one constructed by many different people over a course of 200 years, due to the fact that there are breaks in the progression. Over time we find constant change due to new trends and styles being longed for by the design world. To achieve a building design of earlier times, and architect must truly study and be able to relate to the styles that were wanted. I believe it would be harder to achieve a cohesive style over the course of 200 years, whereas it may not be as hard if built for 100, then picked back up on construction 100 years later. The style would be more easily recognizable than constantly trying to build. Personally, both buildings do an amazing job of conveying the medieval period of architecture, but the fact that the Amiens was built over 2 centuries of our history, I believe offers a much richer story than the Salisbury.



Interiors are very similar with the high, ribbed Gothic arches, and narrow sanctuaries with central aisles proceeding to the altar. Exteriors are not as similar due to the fact that the Cologne Cathedral seems much more detailed in decorative aspects as compared to the more simple Salisbury.
Personally, I feel as if the Cologne Cathedral has a more prominent exterior stance when compared to the Salisbury Cathedral. The aging of its material has been eroded to nearly a black color making it stand out more, and although its invitation qualities may have decreased in this process, it definitely has created a more mysterious, intriguing piece of architecture. Due to the fact that both of these were built as places to worship, the interiors surpass the exteriors on importance. The reason I believe that the two interiors are so similar, despite geographic location and time periods is the importance of verticality. The higher things were built, the more power that was implied, and essentially the closer to God the individuals become. We find this aspect through many churches, temples, and cathedral.




In everyday terms we say that every building has it's story, but hardly look into what the chapters of it consist of. For the first time, I have come to understand how it is possible for a building to have a story, and what it means to be consisting of different parts. How these in particular parts come together is how this story is compiled. In these two cathedrals we see that different pieces of the churches were donated and funded by many different groups of the society, making it a true gathering place for all. These individual moments of the building is what makes it up as a whole, furthermore creating harmony, unity, and balance within these beautiful places. I find it an amazing thing how many people it actually takes to make and idea become reality, therefore I do believe that the work put into these works came from people coming together as a whole.


The medieval time period was a very depressing time for the people who lived during it. This time was very feudal, consisting of many invasions, wars and battles for the empires who were in rule. From the history of this time, is where we derive the characteristics of the style period. Within Medieval homes we see very dark colors, with little lighting for the spaces, and many very heavy, bulky materials. There were many fireplaces which provided the warmth and comfort within their homes. Their lives were not pleasant due to the time in which they lived, so things such as these were vital to their well-being. After examining the picture given, I would assume that the maid is preparing some sort of food in the kitchen, so I would see the ceiling being lined in bulky wood, and the walls in stacked stone. The windows seem appropriate as they are small and narrow and offer minimal lighting to the space. I believe their homes offered a shield to the inhabitants from the outside world.

Image citations

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Friday, September 24, 2010